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首页 学者访谈知名学者{3}
学者访谈
 

著名法学家伯尔曼仙逝


按:中国法学界较为熟悉的美国法学家、哈佛法学院退休教授哈罗德·伯尔曼 (Harold J. Berman) 教授于2007年11月13日去世,享年89岁。伯尔曼教授的《法律与革命》(贺卫方等译)、《法律与宗教》(梁治平译)等书在中国法学界曾有较大影响,2006年五月中旬,伯尔曼分别在复旦大学、山东大学、北京大学演讲。以下是哈佛法学院的官方新闻稿:

Harold J. Berman, expert in Soviet law, legal history, and law and religion: 1918-2007

November 13, 2007

Professor Emeritus Harold J. Berman, an expert on comparative, international, and Soviet law as well as legal history and philosophy and the intersection of law and religion, died November 13. He was 89.

Berman recently celebrated his 60th anniversary as a law professor. In 1948 he joined the faculty of Harvard Law School, where he built a reputation as one of the world's best-known scholars of Soviet law, and held the Story Professorship of Law and later the Ames Professorship of Law. He was a frequent visitor to Russia as a guest scholar and lecturer, even during the height of the McCarthy-era.

He left HLS in 1985 for Emory Law School, where he was the first person to hold the Robert W. Woodruff Professorship of Law—the highest honor Emory can bestow upon a faculty member. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, Berman consulted leading Russian officials on proposed legislation and led seminars for political leaders and academics on the development of legal institutions.

In recent years, Berman worked to redress global societal inequalities and to establish systems of trust, peace, and justice in developing countries. He co-founded and co-chaired the World Law Institute, an organization that sponsors educational programs in global law. The Institute opened the first Academy of World Law at the Central European University in Budapest in 2000 and a comparable program in Moscow in 2001.

Berman was also one of the pioneers of the study of law and religion, writing extensively on the subject and playing an integral role in the development of Emory’s Law and Religion Program, now the Center for the Study of Law and Religion.

A prolific scholar, Berman wrote 25 books and more than 400 scholarly articles, including “Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition” and the “The Nature and Functions of Law,” which is in its 6th edition.

Born in 1918 in Hartford, Connecticut, Berman received a bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College in 1938 and a master’s degree and J.D. from Yale University in 1942 and 1947, respectively. He served as a cryptographer in the U.S. Army in the European Theatre of Operations from 1942 to 1945 and received the Bronze Star Medal for his service.

(转引自“正来学堂”http://dzl.legaltheory.com.cn/info.asp?id=14922)

附:

1、Emory大学的新闻稿   

Berman (1918-2007) was Pioneer of Law and Religion
  
  11/13/07
  
  Harold J. Berman

  Emory Law Professor Harold J. Berman, honored and respected for his scholarship and passion for the law, passed away in New York City today, Tues., Nov. 13, 2007. He was 89.

  Berman, who recently celebrated his 60th anniversary as a law professor, referred to teaching as his “calling.” He served the Emory University community as its first Robert W. Woodruff Professor of Law – the highest honor Emory can bestow upon a faculty member – for more than 20 years. He was James Barr Ames Professor of Law Emeritus of Harvard Law School, where he taught from 1948 to 1985.

  “Hal’s contributions to Emory and to legal scholarship were impressive and far-reaching,” said Emory Law Dean David F. Partlett. “He was a humble giant in his field.”

  A prolific scholar, Berman wrote 25 books and more than 400 articles on the topics of law and religion, comparative legal history, Russian law and culture, legal philosophy and private international law. His prize-winning book, Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition (1983), has been published in German, French, Chinese, Russian, Polish, Spanish, Italian, and Lithuanian translations. His other writings have appeared in more than 20 languages.

  James T. Laney, President Emeritus of Emory University who hired him in 1985, called Berman “one of the great polymaths of American legal education.... The critical acuity and catholic influence of his legal thought have earned him a place alongside such 20th-century legal giants as Roscoe Pound, Karl Llewellyn, and Lon Fuller.”

  Berman was one of the pioneers of the study of law and religion. He played an integral role in the development of Emory’s Law and Religion Program, now the Center for the Study of Law and Religion (CSLR), where he served as Senior Fellow. “He was my mentor, but far more important than that, he was one of the few legal scholars in the country willing to write about both law and religion,” said Professor Frank S. Alexander, CSLR founding director, who persuaded Berman to join the faculty at Emory Law after being one of his students at Harvard in the early 1970s.

  Like Alexander, John Witte, Jr., Jonas Robitscher Professor of Law and CSLR Director, had the privilege of studying under Berman. “Out of the blue in 1982, I wrote to ask him whether I should come to Harvard Law School,” said Witte. “Happily, Hal Berman wrote me a wonderful personal letter and invited me to come study with him and to be his research assistant. That was my start in this field, and that in many ways is emblematic of the start that Hal Berman has given to so many others in this and other fields of legal study. He has taught more than 10,000 students over the past 60 years, and more than 250 of them are now teaching in law schools around the world.”

  In recent years, Berman developed a strong interest in world law, particularly in using the power of law to help correct global societal inequities and to establish systems of trust, peace and cooperation. Through his role as founder and co-director of Emory’s World Law Institute, Berman promoted research and international education programs in world law, and sought to facilitate discussion and change in areas such as women’s health in developing countries.

  One of the world’s most distinguished scholars of Soviet and post-Soviet law, Berman was a Fellow of The Carter Center, with a special focus in U.S.-Russian relations. He visited Russia more than 40 times since 1955 as a guest scholar and lecturer on the topic of American law, and he was the founder and co-director of the American Law Center in Moscow, a joint venture of Emory Law and the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. He also took his expertise on Communist and post-Communist law to Eastern Europe and China in recent years, where his writings are well known and widely used.

  Born in 1918 in Hartford, Conn., Berman received a bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College in 1938 and his M.A. in history and LL.B. from Yale University in 1942 and 1947, respectively. He also studied at the London School of Economics before being called into military service. He served in the U.S. Army in the European Theatre of Operations from 1942 to 1945 as a cryptographer and received the Bronze Star Medal.

  In 1991, Berman was awarded the degree of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, by the Catholic University of America; in 1995, the degree of Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, by the Virginia Theological Seminary; and in 2000, the degree of Doctor, honoris causa, by the Russian Academy of Sciences Law University. He also was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

  He is survived by his wife Ruth Harlow Berman; their four children, Stephen, Jean, Susanna, and John; seven grandchildren; and two great grandchildren. A public celebration and memorial of Berman’s life and work will be held at Emory University early in the spring semester.

  The work of Harold J. Berman was celebrated during the Oct. 24-26 silver anniversary conference of the Center for the Study of Law and Religion. An interview of him shown during that event is available in video and text.

  The Center for the Study of Law and Religion at Emory University is home to world-class scholars and forums on the religious foundations of law, politics, and society. It offers first-rank expertise on how the teachings and practices of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have shaped and can continue to transform the fundamental ideas and institutions of our public and private lives. The scholarship of CSLR faculty provides the latest perspectives, while its conferences and public forums foster reasoned and robust public debate.

(转引自“天涯社区——法律论坛”http://cache.tianya.cn/publicforum/content/law/1/83524.shtml)

2、哈罗德·伯尔曼教授中文简历
  
  哈罗德.伯尔曼是美国当代最重要、最有影响力的法学家之一,他的著作涉及比较法、国际法、法制史以及法哲学等诸多领域。对中国法学界来说,伯尔曼法学思想的独特之处在于他把两个看似“互不相关的东西”——法律与宗教,放在了一起,从人类文明、社会进步、历史发展的高度,集法学、哲学、人类学、社会学于一体,超越了一般人对法律与宗教传统定义的偏狭认识,揭示了法律的本质与基础,剖析了法律与宗教二者之间内在的根本一致。伯尔曼的名言,“法律必须被信仰,否则它将形同虚设”,自二十世纪九十年代以来已成为法学理论界中的重要命题。
  
  学术生涯与成就
  
  哈罗德J.伯尔曼是美国爱默蕾大学(Emory University)法学院Robert W. Woodruff教授。哈佛大学法学院James Barr Ames荣誉退休教授。1948--1985年和1986--1989年期间,伯尔曼教授在哈佛大学开设“世界法律”和“比较法制史(西方法制传统)”课程,传道授业,桃李天下。
  
  注: 爱默蕾大学(Emory University)创建于1836年,位于亚特兰大,是美国的著名大学之一。
  
  Robert W. Woodruff教授是以Coca-Cola总裁Robert W Woodruff命名的荣誉称号
  
  James Barr Ames教授是以古典法学家,前哈佛大学法学院院长詹姆斯.巴尔.恩姆斯命名的荣誉称号。
  
  伯尔曼教授一生著作等身,共出版了25本专著,发表过300多篇学术论文。为他赢得最高学术声誉的代表作:《法律和革命:西方法律传统的形成》(1983)被译成了德文、法文、中文、俄文、波兰语、西班牙语、意大利语和立陶宛语。他的其他著作还包括:《苏联的正义》(1963年修订本)、《信念和秩序:法律和宗教的妥协》、《法律和第二次革命:西方法律传统的抗议性改革所带来的影响》等。他曾在众多国家开设讲座、发表演讲。对象多为高等院校的师生、不同学科领域的专家学者。那些法学家、历史学家、哲学家、神学家和政治家们是他最忠实的听众。
  
  作为EMORY 大学“卡特中心”的研究员,伯尔曼教授尤其专于美俄关系的研究。1952-1984年期间,担任“哈佛大学俄国研究中心执行委员会”的委员;1974-1991,“美国和前苏联司法委员会贸易和经济理事会”的委员。
  
  1961-1962年,伯尔曼教授在前苏联的首都莫斯科进行了为期一年的学术研究,时任俄罗斯科学院国家和法律研究所的客座教授。1982年的春学期,他再次作为“富厄布莱特”高访学者访问了莫斯科国家大学,传授美国的法律体制。自1955年以来,已40多次访问了俄国。
  
  伯尔曼教授致力于推进文科教学中的法学教育。他的著作:《法律的性质和作用:为学习文科和理科学生所作的介绍》(1958年第六版,与William R. Greiner和 Samir N. Saliba合著)成为各大学普遍使用的教材。
  
  教授先生还是EMORY大学“国际法律研究所”的主任。该研究所主要研究各个国家的法律制度,并资助该研究领域的教育培训项目。所里的国际专家学者们每年在布达佩斯的“欧洲中央大学”开设一个学期的课程,传授世界各地的法律。
  
  伯尔曼教授是“莫斯科美国法律中心”的创始人和负责人之一。该中心由EMORY大学法学院和俄国司法部协同创设,旨在向俄国的律师传授美国法律。1991-1997年间美国的顶尖法学教授们纷纷在此开课。约有80多位学员在中心完成了学业并获得EMORY大学美国法的文凭和证书。
  
  作为《法律和宗教》创始人之一,伯尔曼教授自1975年创刊以来就一直是编辑委员会的成员。1994年,因为在法律和宗教领域的杰出贡献,伯尔曼教授被授予年度“《法律和宗教》期刊奖”,这无疑是对教授的伟大学术成就和崇高奉献精神的再次肯定。
  
  简要生平
  
  1918年,伯尔曼教授出生于美国康乃迪克州的哈特佛市(Hartford)。他在1938年获得达特茅斯学院(Dartmouth College)的学士学位;1939年获伦敦经济和政治学院的研究生结业证书;1942年获耶鲁大学历史学硕士学位;1947年耶鲁大学法学博士学位。在1942-1945年期间,供职于美军驻欧洲战区,并获铜质星章。美国艺术与科学院院士。1991年被美国天主大学授予名誉博士学位。1995年获弗吉尼亚神学院的名誉人文学博士学位;1997年获比利时根特大学(University of Ghent)的名誉博士学位;2000年成为俄罗斯科学院的法学荣誉博士。

(转引自http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4133b065010003v9.html)

3、“与大师对话”——伯尔曼法学思想座谈会

2006年5月18日,由北京普世社会科学研究所主办的“与大师对话”——伯尔曼法学思想座谈会在北京理工国际教育交流大厦召开。来自北京大学、清华大学、中国人民大学的法学院及中国政法大学的部分师生及有关学者参加了座谈会。会上,伯尔曼教授围绕对法律的信仰及法律与宗教的互动问题,做了精彩的发言。他还认真回答了与会者的提问,并就有关问题同与会者进行了探讨。会议由中国社会科学院美国研究所研究员、普世社会科学研究所所长刘澎先生主持。

(转引自“普世社会科学研究网”http://www.pacilution.com/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=721)

4、伯尔曼教授在山东大学法学院

应我院常务副院长肖金明教授邀请,美国当代著名法学家哈罗德·J·伯尔曼教授来我院进行为期一周的学术访问。5月8日下午,伯尔曼教授携夫人在孙新强教授和姜峰老师的陪同下抵达济南遥墙机场。肖金明教授、刘红主任、张海燕老师等到机场代表法学院师生迎接伯尔曼教授和夫人,肖金明教授向伯尔曼教授转达了展涛校长的问候和感谢,对伯尔曼教授访问山东大学和法学院表示欢迎。

晚上,法学院设宴欢迎伯尔曼教授夫妇。张永兵副校长出席晚宴并代表学校对伯尔曼夫妇的来访表示热烈欢迎。宴会期间,法学院常务副院长肖金明教授与伯尔曼教授交流了访问计划,党委书记盖玉强,副院长刘保玉教授、林明教授,院长助理孙新强教授,院办主任刘红等参加宴会。

在山东大学访问期间,伯尔曼教授将于5月9日登临我校“大家讲坛”讲授“法律信仰”,5月10日在法学院做主题为“西方法律传统”的开放式研究生讲座和主题为“世界法”的学术报告,5月12日出席在山大举行的“第二届全国理论法学博士生论坛”开幕式,并发表学术讲演。伯尔曼教授结束对山东大学法学院的学术访问后,将相继访问浙江大学、复旦大学、北京大学等学校。

伯尔曼教授是世界知名法学家,当代美国法理学以及商法等领域公认的权威,他现任哈佛大学名誉教授、埃莫里大学教授,其代表作《法律与宗教》、《法律与革命——西方法律传统的形成》,对中国法学界产生了巨大的影响。

(转引自http://www.law.sdu.edu.cn/newscenter/news_view.asp?newsid=341

5、我眼中的伯尔曼教授夫妇

哈罗德·J·伯尔曼,每个法学学习者都听说过的名字。原以为这样一位世界级的法学大家,应当是不苟言笑、面容严肃、让人肃然生畏,但随即我发现自己完全错了。
伯尔曼先生微笑着向我们招手致意,仿佛见到老朋友一般。先生愉快的回忆道,他曾在24年前随外交商务人员来过一次中国,当时中国的法学教育和法律事业还处于几乎空白阶段。而当我把一束漂亮的鲜花献给伯尔曼夫人时,已经92岁高龄的夫人像小孩子一般,有些夸张得张大了嘴巴:“OhFlowersSo beautiful”那表情在说,她不相信这是给自己的,甚至后来坐到车上了还一直在欣赏。这么一大束花着实有些重,她却一定要亲自抱在怀里。经过长途的飞行,刚下飞机的先生感到有点疲惫,正兴高彩烈的夫人马上“诚恳”的表示,要不要我背着你?呵,看这默幽的!

到了下榻的房间,夫人要找花瓶把花束分门别类的插起来养着。有意思的是,夫人还找来了蜡烛点上——鲜花,烛光,再来杯红酒——多么浪漫的老人!晚上出席欢迎晚宴时,夫人显然精心的化过妆——口红,眼影,修整过的睫毛,仔细挑选过的礼服,丝毫没有马虎。而先生的兴致也很不错,莫非因为身边像花一样漂亮的夫人?

伯尔曼夫妇真是一对恩爱夫妻。每次在拍合影照的时候,先生和夫人都是双手紧紧相扣。先生说,美国的教授外出讲学一般不带夫人,但他基本上每次都例外。9日下午的“大家讲坛”,夫人便“照例”去聆听。先生讲到某些关键处,夫人就报以会意的笑和小声的叫。两个多小时的讲座,夫人始终在台下陪伴。对于伯尔曼夫妇而言,这应该是他们多年的习惯了吧?

伯尔曼先生的确是世界级的法学大家。先生那闪耀着智慧的深邃目光时刻在告诉着你他的睿智。伯尔曼教授目前已撰写了24部著作,300多篇论文。他的思想无论是对美国还是中国、乃至整个世界法学界都产生了有目共睹的影响。正如先生的同事、美国埃默里大学法学院教授Frank S. Alexander所说:“伯尔曼教授是世界上关于法律与宗教方面研究的领导者,他奠定了其研究基础并在这一领域耕耘了50年。”除了法律与宗教方面的研究,他的《法律与革命》已经撰写到了第三部。先生认为中国人同样会对这一部感兴趣。他希望能够尽快写完——“如果我活得足够长寿,不过这要取决于上帝是否愿意看这部书”。在山大访问期间,伯尔曼先生分别以“法律信仰”、“西方法律传统”和“世界法”为主题作讲座,他指出“法”是分为两种层次的,一是“实在法”、“人定法”,即统治者制定的法律;一是“抽象法”、“神定法”,即自然公正的理念层面的法。先生多次强调,对法的信仰不是信仰前者,而是信仰那种抽象的、自然正义的法。先生的语言缓慢,却有一种不容置疑的魅力。先生讲的时间也不长,每次最多也就一个小时,但把一半的时间留给学生提问,他相当乐意与学生交流。先生不仅是一位西方学者,他的情怀、他的思想属于整个世界。

9日中午,伯尔曼教授和法学院师生座谈后,在学人大厦吃自助午餐。有同学请求和他合影留念,先生愉快地答应了,并且坚持要站起来和大家合影。一位同学拿了张白纸请他签名,先生没有签。而是抽出一张名片,在名片正面上方仔细签下名字和日期,最后递给那位同学。这真是那位同学意外的惊喜了。我也把早已准备好的新版《法律与宗教》拿给先生。当得知这是他的中文译著后,先生显得既意外又高兴。先生说,他还没有见过这本书的中文版,问我可不可以把书送给他,他送我一本英文著作作为补偿?哦,真是一个更大的意外惊喜。先生拿过手提包仔细翻找,却遗憾的没有找到。旁边的姜峰老师建议先生先为我签名,事后再送他两本。先生愉快的同意了。他问了我的名字,然后掏出怀里的圆珠笔,在书页上方仔细地签下了这样的文字:

To Yu Wen Haofrom Harold J. Berman
With good memories of Shandong University students

伯尔曼夫妇相信自己并不老。一次先生要下楼梯,我过去想搀扶一下,毕竟他已是88岁的老人了。但是先生摆摆手示意不要,他相信自己能行,他的目光那样坚定从容,扶着扶手,一步一步、缓慢却坦然、安稳的走下长长的楼梯。那一刻,你无法不对这样一位执著自信的老人产生崇敬之情。


(节选自“山东大学报”http://xb.cnkaoyan.net/html2006/2006/2006_10_40_2444.htm)

 

【经济-社会史评论网转发】2007年11月15日

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